Midwifery as practiced by certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) encompasses a full range of primary health care services for women from adolescence beyond menopause. These services include primary care, gynecologic and family planning services, preconception care, as well as care during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.  CNMs are educated in two disciplines: midwifery and nursing.  They earn graduate degrees, complete a midwifery education program accredited by Accreditation Commission for Midwifery Education (ACME), and pass a national certification examination administered by the American Midwifery Certification Board (AMCB) to receive the professional designation of CNM.